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Updates ~ Archive
Common Rights & Expectations
The status of these treaties changes. Occasionally "Reservations," "Understandings," or "Declarations," are attempted by individual countries at signing or ratification. These and the current status of each treaty are listed with The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in Geneva Switzerland.

The applicability of The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide may be affected by the creation of the permanent International Criminal Court which is empowered to deal with "the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of agression" (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court), "the most serious crimes of concern to the international community." The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, treaty, and ratification status in both French and English, are available from the United Nations through:

1998 - 2006

December 30, 2006, Argentina: Madrid: Rodolfo Almiron, a former police officer, alleged by Argentinian judges to be a member of an anti-communist terrorist/death squad group "AAA" operating under President Peron (pre-dicatorship 1976-1983) and wanted for specific murders in Argentina is arrested in Spain for extradition to Argentina. 1500 deaths of leftist government opponents are attributed to "Triple A" ("Spanish police arrest ex-policeman Almiron," Reuters, Dec. 28, 2006, Reuters foundation Alertnet; "Argentine 'death squad' man held," Dec. 29, 2006, BBC News). Luis Patti, accused of rights abuses was prevented from taking his seat in Congress, partly due to the testimony of a construction worker Luis Gerez, tortured by police during the "dirty war," who disappeared Dec. 27th on the way to buy groceries. His is the second recent disappearance of witnesses testifying against police crimes during the "dirty war" (See Jorge Julio Lopez) ("Second 'dirty war' witness missing in Argentina," Reuters, Dec. 29, 2006, .Reuters foundation Alertnet).

        Montevideo Uruguay: Juan Maria Bordaberry, former President of Uruguay then dictator under military rule, arrested November 17th, is to be held responsible at law for ten deaths as a result of "the detention and torture to which (these people) were subjected , as part of a regime installed by Bordaberry, without which these crimes would not have been committed" (quote and information:"Uruguay ex-dictator to be tried on 10 more murders," Reuters, Dec. 20, 2006, Reuters AlertNet). Many of those who committed crimes under Plan Condor are protected by amnesty laws serving political and military interests rather than justice. With crimes against humanity as a whole it may be beyond the mandate of individual governments to grant amnesty. As dictators of the era and their enforcers are called to account throughout Latin America U.S. liaisons and information exchange personnel are never mentioned, despite the evidence of Ambassador White's cable referring to a U.S. communications centre for Operation Condor; the centre was located in "the Panama Canal Zone which covers all of Latin America,"coordinating intelligence ("Operation Condor: Cable Suggests U.S. Role," March 6, 2001, The National Security Archive); eventually the U.S. will have to clarify its signals intelligence and intelligence agencies support for Operation Condor, if not its direction. -ed..

December 26, 2006, Spain: the high court has refused jurisdiction over Ricardo Cavallo, held since June of 2003 on charges of genocide among other charges for acts in Argentina. Argentina has repealed its immunities from prosecution for the military's crimes 1976-1983 and may request extraditon ("Spain rejects 'dirty war' trial," Dec. 20, 2006, BBC news).

        Bogata: in November by order of Colombia's supreme court, allies of the current Uribe administration, several current legislators (as well as a woman former legislator) were arrested for membership in a paramilitary organization responsible for the massacres of villagers; the Uribe administration in power is increasingly identified with death squad membership, activities and the cocaine traffic, despite overwhelming support from the Bush administration ("Key Colombian leaders linked to death squads: U.S. lists right-wing paramilitaries as terror groups," Mika Casser, Chronicle Foreign Service, Dec. 16, 2006, San Francisco Chronicle).

        Sudan update:International Criminal Court prosecutor. Luis Moreno Ocampo, has told the UN Security council that the ICC is ready to proceed with prosecution of cases against alleged war criminals in Sudan. The U.S. has abstained fromthe ICC effort ("Prosecutor Briefs U.N. on Alleged Crimes in Darfur," by Michele Kelemen, Dec. 17,2006,

December 14, 2006, Ethiopia: an Ethiopian court has found former leader Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam and 11 others of his central committee, guilty of genocide and other atrocities including "the illegal confiscation of property" (Aljazeera); sixty others were also convicted of genocide. The Marxist dictator was ousted in 1991 and found sanctuary in Zimbabwe, where he is likely to remain. The convicted all face a death penalty. VOA quotes American lawyer Michael Clough finding a difficulty in the genocide conviction : "his actions did not target a single group," while the current government has targeted the Anuak. The victim group could be loosely categorized as tens of thousands of the middle class ("Ethiopia Convicts Mengistu of Genocide," Howard Lesser, Dec. 13, 2006, VOA news; "Mengistu found guilty of genocide," dec. 12, 2006, As in the case of Milosevic, genocide trials are effectively used (Milosevic was found dead in his cell) against Marxist rulers, while right wing dictators such as Pinochet usually remain protected by the courts.

        France: warrants from 2001, renewed 2005, against 17 collaborators of Pinochet's dictatorship, should bring about their trial in France in 2008. Though a number of other accused have died the 17 may be made to stand trial in France or will be tried in absentia ("France to bring Pinochet allies to trial," A.F.P./, Dec. 12, 2006, The Australian). 4 French citizens who disappeared in Chile during the Seventies remain a concern to their country. Thousands in Chile were murdered and many more thousands tortured.

December 11, 2006, Chile: The New York Times notes ("Joy, and Violence, at Death of Pinochet," Pascale Bonnefoy, Dec. 11, 2006) that Augusto Pinochet died December 10th, and thousands celebrated in the streets. Others protested the celebration. His victims were effectively denied justice. The Times article does not mention that December 10th was International Human Rights Day.

        Cambodia: The International Bar Association of the U.K. has cancelled its training of lawyers for the defendants in upcoming genocide trials of the Khmer Rouge. Cambodians prefer to prepare their own lawyers. It is possible that crimes (genocide) by the Khmer Rouge were predicated on devastation of Cambodia by U.S. bombing. The bombing as an adjunct to the Vietnam War, brought about mass casualties, starvation, extreme patriotism and fascism under the name of communism, encouraging Khmer Rouge policies and actions. Pol Pot was supported by both the U.S. and China. Some of those aware of over seven million Cambodians killed from 1970 to 1980, attribute a maximum of about a third of these to Khmer Rouge killings inflated to cover deaths from bombings, nationalist imprisonment, and starvaton. Another estimate is as low as 600,000 fatalities caused by the Khmer Rouge. The bombing of any civilian society might be noted as a step toward genocide ("International lawyers group cancels Cambodia genocide trial training," Michael Sung, Nov. 24, 2006, Jurist, Univ. Pittsburgh; "Statistics of Cambodian Democide: Estimates Calculations and Sources," R.J.Rummel, Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Center for National Security Law, Charlottsville [Access:]; "Pol Pot and Kissinger," Edward S. Herman, Zmagazine, Sept.1997 [Access:]).

November 30, 2006, Mexico City: Former President Luis Echeverria (see above) is again charged with genocide and placed under house arrest; judges have decided that the term of statue of limitations as applied, did not begin until Echeverria left high office; in 1968 at the time of the massacre of 300 students and their supporters, Mr. Echeverria was the Internior Minister, and subsequently rose to the Mexican presidency. Jurist points out that the statute of limitations concludes Dec.1 ("Mexican Court Restores Warrant for Ex-President," Associated Press, Nov. 30, 2006, The Washington Post , online; "A New Warrant for Ex-Mexico Leader," Nov. 30, 2006, BBC News; "Mexico appeals court says ex-president can be charged with genocide," Holly Manges Jones, Nov. 20, 2006, Jurist Univ. Pittsburgh).

        Chile: General Pinochet was again indicted, this time for the murder of two of Allende's bodyguards, Wagner Salinas and Francisco Lara; Pinochet accepted political responsibiity for his government's crimes in a public statement at his birthday party Nov. 25th ("Pinochet indicted for 1973 executions," Eduardo Gallardo, Nov. 27, 2006, The Mercury News, online). In none of the over-reported accounts of the former dictator's birthday party does Pinochet show remorse or understanding of the depth of his crime against all people.

November 24, 2006: Guatemala [additional note]: Jurist reported that Efrain Rios Montt was among the six charged with crimes against humanity including genocide. The judge, Santiago Pedraz for the Spanish State, issued an international arrest warrant July 7, 2006 ("Spain judge charges ex-generals in Guatemala genocide case," James M. Yoch Jr., July 8, 2006, Jurist Univ. Pittsburgh School of Law).

        France / Rwanda: Rwanda has recalled its Ambassador-to-France ("Rwanda recalls ambassador from France," AP Nov. 24, 2006, Toronto Star). To understand military actions in Rwanda as part of a Francophone-Anglophone turf war, see "The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes," Michel Chossudovsky, Nov. 23, 2006,; see also "Rwanda: Installing a US Protectorate in Central Africa: The US was behind the Rwandan Genocide," Michel Chossudovsky, ibid.: Chapter 7 from The Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order, 2nd ed., May 2000, Global Research.

        Chile: a judge in Peru has issued a warrant for the arrest of former President Alberto Fujimori, for the massacre of twenty Shining Path assassinated in prison. Fujimori is for the moment in Chile which over the course of so many years has not brought General Pinochet to justice yet knows him guilty of crimes against humanity. Peru's previous request for Fujimori's extradition was not honoured ("New arrest warrant for Fujimori," Nov. 22, 2006, BBC News). Fujimori began taking large sums of money from the U.S. CIA in the 1970's and under his administration lawyers for dissidents were murdered and a political opponent placed in a public cage before enduring a secret trial. See Dr. Reuben Abimael Guzman Reynoso, and Nov. 9, 2005, May 19, 2006, historical note.

        Mexico: charged with genocide in the massacre of university students during Mexico's dirty war (1960's to 80's), Luis Echeverria, former President of Mexico, was released July 8th on the grounds that the statute of limitations had expired (See previous, June 15, 2005, Sept. 19, 2006, March 3, 2006).The Mexican Supreme Court ruled in June 2005 "that Echeverria could be prosecuted" ("Mexico judge clears ex-president of genocide charges," Bernard Hibbitts, July 8, 2006, Jurist Univ. Pittsburgh School of Law). Mexico became a signatory of the Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity, on July 3, 1969, without subsequent ratification. -ed. Honouring a promise to reveal participation of the Mexican government in the murders and genocide of left wing students and dissidents, departing President Fox released the report November 17th. As quoted by The New York Times, it states “the battle the regime waged against these groups — organized among student movements and popular insurgencies — was outside the law” and employed “massacres, forced disappearances, systematic torture and genocide, in an attempt to destroy the part of society it considered its ideological enemy;” the victim groups were affirming democracy. The New York Times quotes prosecuting attorney Carillo Prieto saying to the AP - " It was the consequence of an authorized plan to do away with political dissidents" ("Mexican Report Cites Leaders for ‘Dirty War’," James C. McKinley Jr., Nov. 23, 2006, New York Times; "Mexican report reveals decades of rights abuses by the government," James C. McKinley Jr., Nov. 23, 2006, New York Times). A preliminary draft of the report has been available for nearly nine months at ("Report Documents 18 Years of 'Dirty War' in Mexico / Special Prosecutor: State Responsible for Hundreds of Killings, Disappearances," Kate Doyle, Feb. 26, 2006, The National Security Archive [Access:]). While the North American press notes crimes against humanity of three past Mexican presidents and their officials, mention of a U.S. role is usually avoided. CIA involvement, prevarication and responsibility is suggested by evidence of a CIA sponsored Mexican spy network, "LITEMPO," including former Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz and Luis Echeverria among other upper level officials working for CIA station chief Winston Scott at the US Embassy ("LITEMPO: The CIA's Eyes on Tlatelolco, CIA Operations in Mexico," Jefferson Morley, Oct. 18, 2006, National Security Archive Electronic Briefling Book No. 204; "Mexican Ex-Presidents Blasted in Report," Julie Watson AP, Nov. 18, 2006, See Posada.

November 22, 2006, France / Rwanda: the Financial Times reports that a warrant has been issued for the arrest of Paul Kagame (see above) as well as 9 others, but its means of application remains uncertain; on Nov. 16th in Kilgali a Rwandan military tribunal found a priest guilty in absentia of "rape and involvement in the 1994 genocide," with a sentence of life. France has been asked to extradite to Rwanda Father Wenceslas Munyeshyaka ("France approves warrants for Rwandan leader," Andrew England, Nov. 21, 2006, Financial Times; "Rwanda: military tribunal convicts priest of genocide, rape," Nov. 17, 2006, IRIN).

November 21, 2006, Sudan update: Moammar Gadhafi has encouraged the government of Sudan to reject foreign intervention: "Western countries and America are not busying themselves out of sympathy for the Sudanese people or for Africa but for oil and for the return of colonialism to the African continent (as quoted by CNN. "Gadhafi: U.N. Darfur force is ruse to grab Sudan's oil," Nov. 19, 2006,; the presidents of Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Eritrea, and Central Africa (expected) meet with Gadhafi in Tripoli to deal with Darfur ("Four heads of state arrive in Libya for summit on Darfur conflict," AP, Nov. 21, 2006, International Herald Tribune). Andrew Natsios, President Bush's special envoy on Darfur has threatened "Plan B" if Sudan doesn't resolve the crisis by the time the African Union's funds run out at the end of December ("U.S. prepared to move to 'Plan B' on Sudan," George Gedda AP, Nov. 21, 2006, The Washington Post).

     Berlin: on November 14th, charges were filed by the U.S. Center for Constitutional Rights(among other groups) under German law in Berlin, against U.S. former Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld and others, for crimes against humanity. See "informations".

     Guatemala City: expecting an arrest warrant soon for former dictator Rios Montt, thousands of survivors of a genocide committed under his authority took to the streets of Guatemala City, November 17th demanding justice; the Spanish court has charged for extradition eight former military and government officials and the Guatemalan courts ordered the arrest of six so far; Efrain Rios Montt, wanted for genocide, directs the powerful "Guatemalan Republican Front" and his daughter is married to a U.S. congressman ("Guatemalan Genocide Survivors Clamor for Ríos Montt´s Capture," Elias, Nov. 11, 2006, Austin Indymedia ; "Indigenous survivors in Guatemala file demand for accusation in genocide case against ex-dictator Rios Montt," Elias con atx imc, Oct. 7, 2006, Austin Indymedia; "Spanish court issues arrest warrants for the butchers of Guatemala," Catherine Norris, Aug. 5,6, 2006, Counterpunch).

     France re. Rwanda: 9 Rwandans in President Paul Kagame's circle are to be indicted by the French for destroying an airplane containing the former presidents of Rwanda and Burundi (among other people including a French flight crew); the French court cannot issue an international arrest warrant for President Kagame himself while in office, but maybe eventually or in Rwanda. Accounts of RPF Kagame's Rwanda Paytriotic Front) responsibility for the shooting down of the plane, considered a causative act of the Rwandan massacres, are usually suppressed by NATO institutions (Kagame was the RPF general invading Rwanda). For instance the story was reported by Radio Canada in French and unnoticed by the Anglophone CBC. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda did not take up the issue, and Keith Harmon Snow suggests that special prosecutor Carla del Ponte was dismissed for showing too much interest in RPF "atrocities," and holds U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright responsible for stopping the ICTR's interest ("Proxy Wars in Central Africa," Keith Harmon Snow, July 19, 2004); in an event co-sponsored by the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy while Michael Ignatieff was director, Kagame spoke at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government in 2001, and enjoys covert favour with the U.S. State and Defense Departments ("Accomplishments and Challenges of Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Rwanda," 2/5/2001,J.F.K School of Government Women in Public Policy Program, Women Waging Peace; "French Prosecutors Okay Rwanda Arrests," Pierred-Antoine Souchard, AP World News ~;"Des poursuites contre Paul Kagame ?" Nov. 20, 2006, Radio Canada; "Le president rwandais dans le collimateur due juge Bruguière," Le Figaro, Nov.20, 2006, Radio-Canada). Background: "The Tactical Use of Genocide in Sudan and the Five Lakes Region (2006)"; also "The Third Force in Rwanda and Sudan (2004)." Earlier this month the Rwanda Commission accused France of complicity in the genocide (See "informations", nov. 10th).

        Haiti / New York City: three women have been awarded heavy damages from a judge for crimes against humanity, rape and abuse committed against them in Haiti by military personnel under death squad leader Emmanuel; 'Toto' Constant, who as the leader of FRAPH is considered responsible for the deaths of many of Aristide's people ("New York Judge Awards $19 Million to Victims of CIA Backed Haitian Death Squad Leader Emmanuel Toto Constant," Amy Goodman and Jennie Green, Oct. 26, 2006, Democracy Now!).

November 19, 2006, Uruguay: the BBC reports the arrests of Juan Maria Bordeberry (formerly President) and Juan Carlos Blanco (formerly Foreign Minister), implicated in the killing of two guerillas and two congressmen in 1976.The congressmen had fled military rule to Argentina where a number of escaping Uruguayans were killed ("Uruguay's ex-president arrested," Nov. 17, 2006, BBC News online).

November 15, 2006, Sudan update: as U.S. propagandists use the terrible suffering of villagers in Darfur to build anger at the Government of Sudan (propaganda for war), UN Commissioner of Human Rights, Louise Arbour, has asked the Government of Sudan to intervene and disarm militias in west Darfur, to end the harming of civililans and refugees ("UN Human Rights Chief Calls for Disarming of Darfur Militias," Ned Mulcahy, Nov. 11, 2006, Jurist Univ. Pittsburgh School of Law); on return from a visit to Darfur last May the Commissioner encouraged the International Criminal Court to prosecute suspects of Darfur's war crimes; the UN Security Council (with US abstention) has given the ICC authority over regional war crimes there ("UN Rights Chief Calls on ICC to Press Prosecution of Darfur War Crimes," Greg Sampson, May 11, 2006, Jurist, Univ. Pittsburgh School of Law). By excusing itself from the ICC and legal responsibility for war crimes, the US administrations involved forfeit a chance to prove their innocence of causative crimes. U.S. policy has supported rebel groups in the south of Sudan, now in the west, at a terrible price to the Sudanese people. Why hasn't the world insisted on disarmament in Sudan ? And why hasn't the U.N. heavily funded and strengthened the African Union ?

November 10, 2006, Sudan update: China is supporting the Government of Sudan's position by blocking a U.S. move for UN forces in Sudan. China's current investment in Sudan is over six billion U.S. dollars ("Sudan's Beshir says UN troops would create Iraq-style debacle," Verma Yu, Nov. 3, 2006, Agence France Presse). Some U.S. and Canadian groups have called for divestment and/or labeled the situation in Darfur a "genocide," pressing UN military intervention rather than demanding disarmament of rebel groups refusing negotiated settlement. At the China-Africa summit, China pledged by 2009 to double its aid to Africa. China also pledged debt forgiveness to the poorest African nations, training for 15000 Africans, building of 60 hospitals/malaria clinics and 100 schools, and other humanitarian investments toward international equity ("China to double aid to Africa," Nov. 4, 2006, IRIN Africa).

October 13, 2006, Iraq: with a credible report of Iraqi civilian death toll since the U.S. /UK. invasion of Iraq in 2003, exceeding 600,000 ("Study Claims Iraq's 'Excess' Death Toll Has Reached 655,000," David Brown, Oct. 11, 2006, The Washington Post, with reference to the Oct. 11 publication by The Lancet)... made worse by death tolls from the 1990-91 invasion, its targeting of the civilian infra-structures in Iraq, its civilian bombings, the suppressed deaths of thousands of Iraqi soldiers buried in trenches, the massacre on the road to Basra, the effects of Sanctions extended to civilian medical supplies, the use of depleted uranium, the death toll of Iraqis as a result of U.S. policy may be considered within a perspective of the convention on genocide; - ed.. British and U.S. government officials have challenged the report's validity ("Bush discredits Iraqi death toll report ," Staff and agencies, Oct. 11, 2006, Guardian Unlimited; "Beckett rejects Iraq death toll," Matthew Tempest and agencies, Oct. 12, 2006, Guardian Unlimited).

     U.K.: Reuters reports from Oxford that an inquest has ruled a veteran ITN war correspondent's death at the hands of U.S. soldiers in south Iraq, 2003, an unlawful killing; not "embedded," Terry Lloyd was shot several times; U.S. soldiers refused evidence to the inquest; the ruling opens pursuit of those responsible for a war crime ("U.S. troops 'unlawfully killed' Terry Lloyd," Eleanor Wason, Oct. 13, 2006, Reuters U.K.).

     U.S.: the Association of Humanitarian Lawyers (AHL) at , is posting: "War Crimes Committed by the United States in Iraq and Mechanisms for Accountability," a summary of some of the recent war crimes in Iraq, prepared by Consumers for Peace ( and Karen Parker, president of AHL. Oct. 10, 2006 [access:].

     Argentina : The New York Times reported that Jorge Julio López has disappeared after presenting evidence against Miguel Etchecolatz, former Buenas Aires Province police commissioner ("Death Squad Fears Again Haunt Argentina," by Larry Richter, October 8, 2006, New York Times; "100,000 Protest in Argentina Over Disappearance of Dirty War Victim," Amy Goodman, Oct. 9, 2006, Democracy Now!).

    Paraguay: Paraguay has joined Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela in refusing to grant u.s. troops committing war crimes, immunity at the International Criminal Court ("Paraguay hardens U.S. military stance," Pedro Servin, ap, Oct. 3, 2006 [access:]).

September 27, 2006, U.S.: in an interview with Democracy Now!, Sept. 22, 2006, Bolivian President Evo Morales called on the U.S. people to help Bolivia extradite its former president, Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada, and Carlos Sanchez Berzain, "who practiced genocide" and are found to be protected in the U.S. by the Bush administration ("Bolivian President Evo Morales on Latin America, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Role of the Indigenous People of Bolivia," Morales, Goodman, Gonzalez, Sept. 22, 2006, Democracy Now!).

September 22, 2006, Buenos Aires: Miguel Etchecolatz is sentenced to life in prison. He was a police commissioner, murderer, torturerin charge of secret prisons during Argentina's "dirty war (1976-1983) ("Ex-Argentine Police Commander Sentenced to Life in Prison," Headlines, Sept. 21, 2006, Democracy Now!). Hewas previously convicted on 91 charges of murder and forced disappearance , and sentenced to 23 years butwas freed under the "Pardon Laws." Now the "Pardon Laws" have been repealed, and the sentencing tribunal recognizes his crimes as part of a genocide ("Miguel Etchecolatz," September 22, 2006, Wikipedia[Access:]; "Ex-police chief Miguel Etchecolatz sentenced to life in jail for genocide,"Sept. 20, 2006, Buenos Aires Herald); the Vanished Gallery [access:< >]available in Spanish as well on the Night's Lantern links page, lists Etchecolatz among over fifty Argentinian officers involved with war crimes; many others remain at liberty or in government service. Several are graduates of the U.S. School of the Americas.The Vanished Gallery lists well over a thousand denounced repressors.

August 11, 2006, Sudan update: despite extravagant human rights concern of north americans among others, Darfur continues to suffer; the group that might reasonably and legally maintain peace and recovery, the African Union with 7000 still on the ground, is not receiving adequate assistance, if any, from former and current colonial powers who seem limited in understanding by ethnocentricity (see: "African Union lacks cash to pay peacekeepers in Darfur," Aug.11, 2006, the Daily Star).

        U.S.: President Bush and others likely to be affected are proposing amendments to alter, retroactively, the U.S. War Crimes Act which currently moves Geneva Conventions into the realm of U.S. law; the International Committee for the Red Cross, oversees and protects the Geneva Conventions; Bush administration proposals attempt to limit application of the law to spare itself prosecution (see: "War Crimes Act Changes Would Reduce Threat of Prosecution," R. Jeffrey Smith, Aug. 9, 2006, The Washington Post; "Retroactive War Crimes Protection Proposed," Pete Yost, Aug. 9, 2006, A.P., ).

        Updates about North American Six Nations (at Caledonia), and the emergency of the Lebanese people, appear on [ throughout] our Bulletin Board or Bulletin Board Archive.

July 17, 2006, Guatemala: Spanish National Court judge Santiago Pedraz has requested the arrest and freezing of assets of eight on charges of "genocide, terrorism, torture, murder and illegal detention" during the genocide and atrocities in Guatemala during the early 1980's: Efrain Rios Montt (former president), Oscar Humberto Mejia Victores, Angel Anibal Guevara Rodriguez, Donaldo Álvarez Ruiz, German Chupina Barahona, Pedro García Arredondo, Benedicto Lucas García ("Judge orders arrest of 2 Guatemalan men," the World Today, July 8, 2006, the Boston Globe; "Judge in Guatemalan Genocide Case Issues Arrest Warrants and Freezes Assets of Rios Montt and other Defendants," July 7, 2006, The Center for Justice and Accountability / Guatemalan Human Rights Commission / USA ). Despite clear evidence of genocide under policies and regimes supported by the United States, there has been reluctance to prosecute those responsible, domestically. Internationally there remains a refusal to apply the law to those responsible in the U.S..

June 21, 2006, Argentina: Miguel Etchecolatz is on trial for alleged crimes against the innocent during Argentina's overt persecution of leftists from 1976-1983; the news releases, accounts, protests of what was apparently U.S. policy in a pan-American military operation, never mention u.s. persons, orders, funding, or the responsibility for crimes against humanity, as the policy's local enforcers are sacrificed to local courts of the americas ("Argentina Holds 'Dirty War' Trial," UPI, June 20, 2006, World Peace Herald).

        Sudan update: the current President of Sudan, Omar Bashir, affirms that he will lead his nation in resistance to a military invasion of Darfur by U.N. forces. Preferring the assistance of the continent's African Union forces which were increasingly deprived of adequate funding, the Sudanese government finds the U.N. representing Euro-American colonial interests in this instance (" Sudan President Vows to Resist U.N. Forces in Darfur," UPI, June 20, 2006, World Peace Herald). English and American interests including some of our notable human rights agencies and groups, have supported UN intervention as an alternative to the horrible suffering presented by media agendas. Neither the U.S. nor U.N. has offered compensation for the U.S. 1998 bombing of a Sudanese pharmaceutical company servicing half the Sudanese population. See also "The Tactical Use of Genocide in Sudan and the Five Lakes Region."

June 15, 2006, U.S.: a letter of July 26, 1950, from U.S. Ambassador John J. Muccio to the State Department's Dean Rusk indicates a U.S. policy of shooting refugees if they approached U.S. lines; Koreans have estimated 400 women and children killed at No Gun Ri by the 7th U.S. Cavalry; the letter has been previously overlooked. The Washington Post and AP fail to mention the chain of command responsible for the administrative decision which is an unprosecuted war crime ("U.S. Policy Was to Shoot Korean Refugees," Charles J. Hanley and Martha Mendoza, AP, may 29, 2006,

May 19, 2006, Chile/Peru: Alberto Fujimori, former President of Peru, was allowed to post $3000 bail in Chile, awaiting its Supreme Court adjudication on his extradition to Peru for human rights abuses etc. Fujimori says he has done nothing wrong ("Conditional release for Fujimori," May 18, 2006, BBC News). Japan has previously refused extradition.

Historical note in tribute to the men and women of Cuzco
Among banal crimes against humanity by national leaders implementing economic miracles, entirely suppressed by the English language press is the forced sterilization in Peru of 331600 poor and/or Indian women and 25590 men under Fujimori's eugenics programs from 1995 to 2000. The crime is considered the result of a birth control program linked to International Monetary Fund assistance ("Sterilisations forcées des Indiennes du Pérou," Françoise Barthélemy, mai 2004, Le Monde Diplomatique; for more information [Access:]).

May 16, 2006, Darfur update: under international pressure, the major rebel group in Darfur signed a peace agreement with the Government of Sudan. Two other rebel groups refused to sign and may be brought in line by United Nations pressure. A current report finds rebels still recruiting in the refugee camps of Chad ("Sudanese Rebel groups continue recruiting refugees in camps in Chad, UN reports," UN, May 16, 2006, [Access:]). The African Union peacekeeping mission ran out of funding when opposed by a U.S. agenda to send in NATO or United Nations troops. Although the Government of Sudan preferred the African Union, the United Nations Security Council has decided to intercede. Once African Union authority was ceded to the UN, Japan funded African Union activities to the amount of 8.7 million dollars. The Government of Sudan is at risk of losing portions of its country. Seccession of the South and portions of Darfur may be encouraged by western corporate interests. All major European and North American media have apparently agreed not to ask or reveal the rebels' funding sources and arms support groups, although an alternative media interview (Democracy Now!) has at least established the presence of two rebel representatives in Washington D.C. on May 15. The rebels' reluctance to make peace has prolonged a tragedy which invites secrecy and unreason to cover its shame. The modest success of the peace process coincides with the halving of aid from the U.N. World Food Program. The suffering is to be balanced with emergency aid by Bush of the U.S.. Harper of Canada and New Democratic Party leader Jack Layton, would consider committing more Canadian forces to Darfur where there are already a hundred Canadian troops. Canada's previous African missions were not successful ("Sudan Could Lose Part of Its Territory," Chege Mbitiru, May 15, 2006, The Nation Nairobi (Access:; "Sanctions threat for Sudan rebels," May 15, 2006, BBC News; "USAID Sudan Monthly Update May 2006," May 11, 2006, USAID Relief Web; "U.S. Runs Into Resistance Over Sudan," Nick Wadhams AP, May 12, 2006, ABC News; "Who are Sudan's Darfur Rebels ?" Martin Plaut, May 5, 2006, BBC News; "Dafur: Inside the Crisis," May 15, 2006, Democracy Now!; "PM keeps door open on mission to Darfur," Gloria Galloway, May 11, 2006, Globe and Mail; "Japan donates 8,7 mln to AU force in Darfur," May 17, 2006, Sudan Tribune). Editors note: for background I suggest:

May 11, 2006, United Nations: on May 9, 2009, at the United Nations General Assembly, the following countries were elected to the new Human Rights Council: "Algeria, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Ecuador, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay and Zambia" (General Assembly Elects 47 Members of New Human Rights Council; Marks 'New Beginning' for Human Rights Promotion Protection. General Assembly GA/10459, May 9, 2006, United Nations); BBC reporting points out that Human Rights Watch, described as a "New York based pressure group," was not successful in its attempt to keep Russia, China, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan off the Council; the report also notes "Each nation standing for election had to pledge to promote human rights" ("US Criticizes New UN Rights Body," May 10, 2006, BBC News).

        Argentina: among the 13,000 dead and missing (officially) in the excesses of Argentine and Uruguayan military officaldom of the 1970's, efforts have been made by powerful relatives of several high profile victims. resulting in the requested extradition by Argentina of six accused military and police currently in Uruguay: "Jose Ricardo Arab Fernandez, Jose Nino Gavazzo Pereira, Ricardo Jose Medina Blanco, Ernesto Avelino Rama Pereira, Jorge Alberto Silveira Quesada, and Gilberto Valentin Vazquez Bisio" ("Six Wanted over 'Dirty War' Case," May 9, 2006, BBC News) ' See also The Vanished Gallery [access:< >].

        Mexico: The National Human Rights Committee of Mexico has accused police under the State's authority of raping 7 women and sexually abusing 16 women in San Salvador Atenco where rioters have been fighting police ("Women Claim Police Rapes," May 10, 2006, BBC News; "Mexican Police Retake Riot Town," May 4, 2006, BBC News).

        Canada: the government has awarded 1.9 billion dollars compensation for physical and sexual abuse of natives in residential schools from the Thirties through the Seventies to an eligible 78,000 natives. The schools were run by the Canadian government, the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglicans, and the United Church ("Canada Agrees Native Abuse Deal," May 11, 2006, BBC News; "Native Canadians Win Compensation for Abuse in Schools," Clifford Krauss, April 28, 2006 New York Times, International Herald Tribune). The decision understands that it was wrong to forcibly brainwash native children and particularly to accepting the abuses of those responsible for their care.

April 6, 2006, Geneva: among those seeking election to the new 47 member Human Rights Council, are Algeria, Pakistan, Ukraine, Peru, Nicaragua, Switzerland ("21 Countries Declare Candidacy for UN Rights Panel," World Bank, April 6, 2006,

        Saddam Hussein and other defeated Iraquis, have been charged with genocide by the war crimes tribunal in Iraq ; the charges concern the Anfal campaign and evidence of nerve agents used against the Kurds ("Saddam Faces Genocide Charges for Kurdish Gas Attacks," April 4, 2006, CBC news); the issue has been used by U.S.. policy for some years to villify Saddam Hussein. There may have been early evidence of input and possible involvement by Iranian or British covert programs and American materials, with the information increasingly suppressed. The legal issue of genocide has been degraded to the service of victors courts, considering what might be the guilt of deposed leaders of victim countries, like Milosevic and Hussein, while ignoring substantial evidence of genocide on the part of their adversaries. "Faux" trials are popular with the U.S. media and support a Bush administration policy of undermining both world courts and international law. Considering victor courts to have taken over the legal systems of occupied countries, as Vichy courts, I'll try instead to focus these pages on areas suppressed by corporate and fascist media, -ed.

March 16, 2006, Canada : with news of Slobodan Milosevic's death in his cell while under responsibility of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Canada's CBC supports the notion that Milosevic attempted suicide by taking a drug that would have reduced his resistance to heart attacks. Court prosecutor del Ponte suggested suicide might have spared him being found guilty. A Croatian Serb, Milan Babic, is said to have committed suicide in the same jail, under the same custody, a week previously. However, Milosevic's son believes his father was murdered ("Milosevic took drug to boost poisoning claim: expert," March 13, 2006, CBC News; "Update 15: Milosevic's Son Says Father was 'Killed'," Anthony Detsch AP, March 14, 2006,; in general CBC news pleases U.S. policy and the Conservative government which the CBC's constant attentions have helped install; although the CBC mentions Milosevic was facing 66 charges "including genocide," it avoids any mention of the charges of "genocide" and "aggression" which Milosevic brought against Canada and other NATO nations for their bombing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia particularly Kosovo, a charge which remained to be settled at the International Court of Justice; more unsettling than the CBC's reporting is that silenced, Milosevic's case against NATO countries and the U.S. which places itself outside judgement, may lack the political backing to be presented before an international court; Milosevic's death in his jail cell undermines the credibility of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) which has offered the world the ultimate justice of a victor's court (There's a brief discussion of Milosevic's appeal to the International Court of Justice, as he attempted to stop the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, in "On Crimes of Power, the Bombing of Yugoslavia, 1999").

        The United Nations General Assembly has voted to replace the Human Rights Commission with a Human Rights Council. The measure was approved by 170 nations (including Canada), with four against (the U.S., Israel, Palau, and the Marshall Islands ) and three abstaining (Venezuela, Iran, Belarus). Some western media have called the former Human Rights Commission "discredited". The CBC for example notes membership by "notorious human rights abusers: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia and Cuba." Others have found the Human Rights Commission overly corrupted by U.S. influence. 47 countries are to be elected to the new Human Rights Council which may occasion a review of their human rights records (sample sources: "U.N. creates new human rights body," March 15, 2006, CBC News; "UN General Assembly creates new Human Rights Council," March 16, 2006, Xinhua ~ People's Daily Online).

March 3, 2006, Mexico: Special Prosecutor Ignacio Carrillo is continuing previously unsuccessful efforts to prosecute former Mexican President Echeverria on charges of mass killing or genocide; a new report cites specific evidence, names and places, of war crimes resulting from counter-insurgency programs under Echeverria in 1970-76, but under Presidents Ordaq, Portillo and Mateos as well ("Mexican Presidency Linked to Dirty War," Julie Watson, Feb. 28, 2006, AP World News).

        The recently separated (February) U.N. Human Rights Chief for Iraq states that the U.S. is in violation of the Geneva Conventions in Iraq due to mass round ups of people who are 80 to 90 % innocent; they are being placed in prisons like Abu Ghraib; technically "internees," they are entitled to protection under the Geneva Conventions; they are not being protected; that is a war crime; he notes the "total breakdown of law and order," within the civil society of Iraq ("exclusive: former UN Human Rights Chief in Iraq Says US Violating Geneva Conventions, Jailing Innocent Detainees," Amy Goodman , John Pace, February 28th, 2006 Democracy Now!; "UN Human Rights Chief Criticises Lawlessness in Iraq," Hads de Vreij, June 12, 2005, Radio Netherlands); the Democracy Now! interview notes parallels to the U.S. advisory team of death squads in El Salvador (ie.1980), except that instead of fifty U.S. advisors in country there are currently 140,000 U.S. troops and advisors in Iraq (ibid.); what this means then is that the U.S. military is being considered guilty by norms of international law and world opinion, and to an extent that has not been witnessed in NATO countries since the Third Reich; what the West and particularly U.S. government will have to prepare itself for is - eventually war crimes (without statutes of limitation) will have to be answered at courts of law, and those serving in the military are at risk of becoming criminals due to criminal policies and crimes of leadership.

A note on categorization...March 4, 2006, according to testimony by Alison des Forges (U.S.) at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, tribal identification noted on i.d. cards, a practice dating back to the 1920s (colonial rule) was responsible for sorting people to their deaths during the slaughters in Rwanda ("ID Cards Became Death Certificates During Genocide, Says Expert," Arusha, March 1, 2006, Hirondelle News Agency - Lausanne).
February 19, 2006, Sudan update: the Bush administration is pressing for NATO forces and UN troops ("Bush calls for larger Darfur force," Feb. 18, 2006, ); the U.S. government first declared a "genocide" in Sudan in the Sudan Peace Act of 2002, before the war in Darfur began; for a discussion of genocide as a result of U.S. destabilization of the region, see: "Tactical Use of Genocide in Sudan and the Five Lakes Region," by J.B.Gerald. Background: "Notes on Sudan" (increments, 2004 - 2005).

February 4, 2006, Kanien'ke:haka: claiming violation of their constitutional jurisdiction in their land, the Women Title Holders of Kanien'ke:haka/Mohawk Nation have declared to the U.S. and Canadian governments among others that these first peoples title holders do not forfeit or surrender their rights to their lands, and aren't allowed to by their laws; they refuse to accede jurisdiction to tribal councils set up by outside governments, and which cede rights to these outside governments. The fraudlent land claims against the Women Title Holders threatens their existence and the group claims that those who would claim their lands are attempting genocide ("Mohawk Women Title Holders Objection top NYS land claims/taxes/police," by Kanion’ke:haka Women Title Holders, Feb.2, 2006, Orakwa International Indigenous Ent. email).

January 27, 2006, Canada: Gerald and Maas is posting this North American contribution to our understanding of genocide: "The North American Indian Holocaust ," Kahentinetha Horn, MNN Mohawk Nation News. The U.N. Committee on Human Rights has asked Canada to re-examine its policies on Aboriginal rights (See Nov. 5, 2005). Consider the imprisonment of Mohawk men standing on their own land (See Mohawk Nation), and the treatment of Rev. Kevin Annett's attempts to question Canadian government's role in the genocide of Aboriginal Peoples (See Hidden from History: the Canadian Holocaust, the Untold Story of the Genocide of Aboriginal Peoples by Church and State in Canada [access:< >]).

Jan. 25, 2006, New Jersey: the State has temporarily suspended the death penalty. Human Rights Watch points out that the death penalty remains in 38 U.S. States, and of these New York and Kansas State courts have found capital punishment unconstitutional. The Illinois governor placed a moratorium on capital punishment in 2000; the U.S. military still allows it (U.S. New Jersey Suspends Death Penalty," News release, Jan. 16, 2006, Human rights watch). The world's people are moving to outlaw the death penalty. See Optional Protocol.

Jan 25, 2006, the Hague: according to a report published on adnkronosinternational ("Croatia: CIA Allegedly Behnd 'Ethnic Cleansing' Operation," AKI, Jan. 13, 2006, [access:]), the U.S. CIA with direct implication of George Tenet, was responsible for the expulsion of Serbs from Croatia in August 1995 (Operation "Storm").

Jan. 12, 2006, Kosovo: continuing genocide warning. About 800 gypsies, burned out of their homes, have been living for six years in camps near a former lead mine and the lead level in their children’s blood has tested at the critical level; the area is administered by the UN ( “Kosovo Roma reject shelter in former military base,” Branislav Krstic, Jan 9, 2006, Reuters AlertNet). The same article notes that the most substantial Roma community in Yugoslavia was destroyed as part of the Western Alliance war on the Serbs, at the hands of Albanians. This may clarify a continuing continental policy of genocide of the Roma, enforced by Hitler’s Holocaust, without finding adequate reparations and concern under the “Allies” as NATO developed. NATO and UN policy as expressed through actions toward the Roma has further implicated the U.S. and Canada in charges originally brought by Yugoslavia against the NATO governments at the International Court of Justice (1999), charges which remain unadjudicated as evidence accumulates. While the U.S. did not submit to the jurisdiction or absolving power of the Court, Canada among other subscribing countries remains charged with Genocide.

    On December 9th the death penalty was abolished in Mexico ("Mexico abolishes the death penalty," About AI," access: Jan. 11, 2006).

Jan. 6, 2006:

    * Sudan update: with dismay the U.N. Secretary General notes the increase in "large scale" violence against civilians in Darfur ("Sudan: Civilian Deaths Almost Double in Darfur, Annan Says," Jan. 2, 2006, UN IRIN). The Financial Times reveals a U.N. report's conclusion that the principle obstacle to negotiations seems to be dissension within the rebel army ("UN warns of growing catastrophe in Sudan," Turner, Dec. 30, 2005, Financial Times, U.K.). The Western press usually faults government backed militia for the violence. See Sudan.

    * Genocide warning (See Bulletin Board Jan. 6th, 2006) : Israel and the Bush administration have threatened to strike Iran's nuclear facilities, actions which could produce long term mass casualties in the destruction of at least one national group; Israel risks direct retaliation, while everyone risks the results of radiological warfare (see two reports by Dr. Mohammed Daud Miraki on the effects of uranium on the Afghani people, "The Silent Genocide from America," and previously, "The Perpetual Death from America" .

Nov. 22, 2005, Tennessee: Memphis resident former El Salvadoran Colonel, Nicholas Carranza was found responsible by a federal jury for torture and for killings in El Salvador, 1980 (See Bulletin Board).

Nov. 9, 2005, Santiago Chilé: Alberto Fujimori, once president of Peru and whose regime was responsible for the negotiated murder of dissidents [Tupac Amaru] at the Japanese embassy among other crimes, is still wanted for trial by Peruvian law and was arrested on a visit to Chilé, Nov. 7, 2005; Peru will press for extradition ("Fujimori now faces extradition to Peru," Gallardo,AP, Nov. 7, 2005, the S.C.; "Judge denies Fujimori's request," Nov. 8, 2005, ABC News); according to CTV (Canada) the most serious charges against Fujimori carry thirty years and a 28.6 million dollar fine for alleged death squad activities ("Fujimori arrested, facing extradition to Peru," AP, CTV); since Chilé has taken several decades to proceed with its prosecution of accused mass murderer Augusto Pinochet, did Fujimori think Chilé would welcome him ?

Nov. 5, 2005, Canada: the U.N. Committee on Human Rights has asked Canada to re-examine its policies on Aboriginal rights: First Peoples land continues to be economically exploited by corporate interests; Aboriginal rights in old treaties are dealt with in ways which risk "extinguishing" these rights; Aboriginal cultures and languages need increased protection and encouragement; Aboriginal women in particular are oppressed ("Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Canada. 02/11/2005," Advanced unedited edition, ccpr/c/can/co/5; access: Ongoing genocide warning.

Nov. 5, 2005. Geneva: Jean Ziegler, the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food has reported that US troops are deliberately starving Iraqi civilians, which breaks protocols to the Geneva Conventions and renders the actions a crime. US forces deny the charge. Ziegler's (Swiss) 2003 report on Israel's treatment of Palestinians found a deliberate policy of food and water deprivation (starvation) and recommended ending the occupation ("Wonderful Jean Ziegler," Cattori, Sept. 25, 2003, India indymedia:, and Oct. 5, 2003, Jerusalemites; "US troops starving Iraqis," Reuters, Oct. 14, 2005, Ongoing genocide warning.

Oct. 30, 2005. United Nations: on October 28th, 2005, Mexico ratified the International Criminal Court, firming its refusal of the U.S. request for American military personnel immunity at the ICC ("Mexico Ratifies War Crimes Tribunal Treaty," AP, Oct. 28, 2005, Yahoo! News). Re. the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998: Mexico signed on 7 Sep 2000 and ratified 28 Oct 2005; Canada signed on 18 Dec 1998 and ratified 7 Jul 2000; the United States of America signed 31 Dec 2000.

6. In a communication received on 6 May 2002, the Government of the United States of America informed the Secretary-General of the following:"This is to inform you, in connection with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted on July 17, 1998, that the United States does not intend to become a party to the treaty. Accordingly, the United States has no legal obligations arising from its signature on December 31, 2000. The United States requests that its intention not to become a party, as expressed in this letter, be reflected in the depositary's status lists relating to this treaty."
-from "Notes" to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998, Multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General- TREATY I-XVIII--10; The Bush administration attempt to withdraw may suggest preparation for the crime of aggression in its second invasion of Iraq, March 20th, 2003.

Oct.7, 2005. Guatemala: murder of human rights activists continues with the deaths of Mario Rene Pacheco on Sept. 8th near Nueva Concepción, Escuintla, and the death of Paulino Lopez, on Sept. 8th at El Paraíso in Jalapa; Freddy Peccerelli, the director as well as the workers of the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation (FAFG), are under continuing death threats; these are the people piecing together evidence of previous deaths ("Urgent action: intimidation and murders continue," September 13, 2005, Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA). Urgent! Letters needed :

Sept. 20, 2005, Vienna: Simon Wiesenthal has died: he persevered when nations looked the other way ("Update: Nazi Hunter Simon Wiesenthal Dies at 96," Bloomberg News, Sept 20, 2005, The Salt Lake Tribune).

from September 19, 2005, Mexico City: former Mexican President Luis Echeverria is charged with "genocide and kidnapping" in the murders of left wing student activists by the military and police on October 2, 1968. Prosecutor Ignacio Carrillo also charged former security chiefs Miguel Nazar Haro and Luis de la Barreda among seven others ("Mexico charges Ex-President for 1968 Massacre," Orlandi, Sept. 19, 2005, Reuters

from September 15, 2005, Chile: the Supreme Court has once again withdrawn immunity from General Pinochet to be tried for murdering, in this instance, 15 or more (ie. 119) leftists in 1975 ("Pinochet Loses Immunity," 15 Sep., 2005, Herald Sun,

from September 14, 2005, Argentina: among possibly 30,000 victims of Argentina's "Dirty War" (1976-83) investigation of the death of a student, Diego Hunziker, has occasioned the arrest of General Luciano Benjamin Menendez and fifteen others. The arrest of retired general, Jorge Rearte, has also been ordered, for questioning about atrocities committed. The Supreme Court nullified previous amnesties in June ("Ex-Argentine Army Chief Ordered Detained," AP, Sept. 14, 2005, Newsday,; note The Vanished Gallery [access:< >], (español [access:< >]), (italiano [access:< >]).

August 10, 2005. Sudan update: John Garang, leader of the southern insurgence,and with recent "peace" made VP of Sudan, is dead, having fallen out of the sky in a helicopter returning from Uganda. Facts that did not find their way into media reports of the "civil war" which took the lives of at least two million people: Garang attended Grinnell College in Iowa ("Obituary: John Garang," August 1, 2005, BBC News), received a Masters and Phd from the University of Iowa (Wikipedia, August 2005), and attended U.S. command school at Fort Benning Georgia. He shared with the current leader of Rwanda (who remains implicated in the airplane tragedy which sparked the Rwandan genocide), a reliance on Uganda's Musaveni, amply funded by the U.S., as well as U.S. military command school training (Pres. Kagame received training at Fort Leavenworth; ref. "H.E. Paul Kagame, Personal Profile," current 10 Aug. 2005, The Government of Rwanda; ) . This may cast an American shadow on the losses of millions on millions of Africans and the uses of tactical genocide in the five lakes region. Covert DIA/CIA programs for the region should be exposed by necessity of the Convention against Genocide, and subjected to review by U.S. courts, or International Criminal Court with or without U.S. approval. -Ed..

July 23, 2005, Guatemala City: discovery of dumped, intact police files from the years of overt genocide may provide evidence necessary to convict among others, Romeo Lucas Garcia and Efrain Rios Montt, former military rulers of Guatemala ("Rescued police files hold Guatemala's dark secrets," Eduardo Garcia, July 22, 2005, Reuters Alertnet). According to this source the police archive covers the 1930's through mid '90's, including Guatemala's Civil War. If so it is likely to document the military and police/corporate/u.s. killings of the people/activists/first people/poor.

July 23, 2005, Ireland: revealing a surrender of wits, Michael McDowell, Ireland's Justice Minister, has by recent treaty surrendered to U.S. agents the right to track down Irishmen in Ireland, and to interrogate them there - Guantanamo Bay has undercut the world's respect for U.S. justice or understanding of the Geneva Conventions. Also available to the U.S., the right to transfer Irish prisoners to the U.S., to search and seize in Ireland, to access Irish bank information secretly, all as part of the war on terror ("Treaty gives CIA powers over Irish citizens," Buckley, July 21, 2005 , The Irish Examiner); a current estimate of the number of Irish men and women in U.S. prisons, or held secretly as terrorist suspects / immigrant detainees, was not made available. - Ed..

July 23, 2005, Baghdad, 'the New Iraq': Shia religious, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, identifies a condition of genocide in the current slaughters of civilians by suicide bombers ("Iraq's top Shia cleric warns of 'genocidal war'," Patrick Coburn, July 19, 2005, The Independent, Online Edition); with possible sectarian warfare, the slaughters of Iraqis by Iraqis, the psychological destabilization of the Iraqi people may fall within application of the U.N. Convention on Genocide.

July 17, 2005, Mexico City: Mexico is not complying with the Bush administration request that it surrender its rights at International Criminal Court, by promising not to prosecute U.S. military persons guilty of war crimes ("Mexico Says it Won't Sign Immunity Pack for U.S. Troops," AP, July 13, 2005, Tampa Bay Online).

June 18, 2005:

    * Mexico - on June 15, 2005 the Supreme Court of Mexico ruled that former president, Luis Echeverria, may be prosecuted on genocide charges for the government killing of students in 1971 ("Genocide Charges Ok'd for Mexico Ex-leader," Weissert, AP, June 15, 2005, Yahoo news; "Can Mexico Put an Ex-president behind Bars?" Orlandi, Reuters, 16 Jun 2005).

    * Argentina - in a case affecting 3000 former and current military officers, Argentina's Supreme Court has allowed charges to be brought for atrocities during the 1976 to 1983 "Dirty War" ("Legal Ruling in Argentina Opens Way to 'Dirty War' Prosecutions," Pertossi, 14 June 2005, On April 19th Spain sentenced a former officer to 640 years for his participation.

    * Germany - the German Parliament has called on Turkey to account for the killing of one million Armenians c. 1915 ("Germans Press Turks on Armenian Slaughter," The Associated Press, June 17, 2005, International Herald Tribune).

    * U.K. - according to Phillippe Sands, the "Director of the Centre for International Courts and Tribunals at University College London" - Australian Prime Minister Howard, UK Prime Minister Blair, US President Bush and Secretary Rumsfeld, could be liable to oversees prosecution for the illegal war against Iraq (source:"PM Could Face Iraq Prosecution," AAP, June 16, 2005,

May 29, 2005, Sudan: Canada has pledged the equivalent of 134 million (USD) to fund African Union peacekeeping efforts in Sudan; the U.S. has offered another 50 million - beyond 95 million promised ("Canada leads way with Darfur aid," May 26,2005, A.P. Globe and Mail).

April 30, 2005, United Nations: Secretary General Annan has announced that the Khmer Rouge will be brought to trial for the Cambodian genocide of 1975-79. A quarter of the Cambodian population was killed or died from a lack of basic necessities ("UN to Set up Khmer Rouge Trials," April 30, 2005, CBC News). This late but appropriate application of the Convention on Genocide which has no statute of limitation, may help deter leaders engineering contemporary genocides. The trials may also clarify the social environment and its formative causes which resulted in the genocide. The Cambodian genocide was brought to a halt through the armed intercession of North Vietnam, the only nation or international alliance that honoured the Convention in Cambodia.

April 24, 2005: Day of remembrance for the Armenian Genocide.

April 22, 2005: Sudan update.

- from April 19, 2005, Spain sentenced Adolfo Francisco Scilingo to 640 years in prison for crimes against humanity, including the crime of genocide: 21 years apiece for each of 30 prisoners dropped from a plane into the ocean, 5 years for torture, 5 years for illegal detention. Scilingo plans to appeal ("Former Argentine Officer Guilty of "Dirty War' Crimes," Roman, April 20, 2005 AP, Houston Chronicle; "Argentine Sentenced to 640 Years over 'Dirty War,'" Trotta & Shirbon, April 19, 2005, Reuters - The Washington Post). See January 16, 2005. For more information on Scilingo and those who have not yet been brought to justice, see the Vanished Gallery ~ Desaparecidos [access:< >].

- from April 19, 2005, Pretoria: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the democratically elected leader of Haiti, kidnapped and illegally deposed by the governments of the U.S. and France, claims the ongoing killing of Haiti's poor is a continuing "black holocaust" ("US, France behind black Haiti holocaust," Leonard, 19 april 05, Sapa-AP, April 21, 2005mail & guardian online).

April 16, 2005: Sudan update.

April 10, 2005, U.S. Concerning The Joint Doctrine for Detainee Operations: Final Coordination 23 March 2005, Joint Publication 3-63, prepared "under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff," of the U.S. military: this provides the m.o. for national and international operations of managing detainees, and affirms the Geneva Conventions while supporting a unilateral U.S. addition, the creation of a category of detainee called "enemy combatant." This category attempts to deny all within it rights to the Geneva Conventions, and I believe it is a violation of the Geneva Conventions. The "Joint Doctrine" states that the category of "enemy combatant" includes all people affiliated with groups "identified under Executive Order 13224" (this contains a list of over 90 double column small print pages of individuals and organizations considered "terrorist;" see updated list, ); the classification of "enemy combatant" is not limited to this list and can be augmented as approved by the Secretary of Defense. The "Joint Doctrine" affirms humanitarian treatment of detainees, but its credibility is undermined by prisoner experience at Abu Ghraib prison, Guantanamo, by the existence of 'ghost detainees', and lack of respect for the Geneva Conventions as mandated by U.S. Army field manuals. "Enemy combatants" who are under this aspect of unilaterally declared U.S. policy, stripped of their Geneva Convention rights, include common criminals and war criminals, and those simply identified as "High Value Detainees (HVD)," defined as "A detainee who possesses extensive and/or high level information of value to operational commanders, strategic intelligence or law enforcement agencies and organizations" (I-13 line 4, JP 3-63). Current U.S. legal ethics suggest that this category is included under "Enemy Combatant" to permit the extraction of information without protection of the Geneva Conventions. The category of "Enemy Combatant" also includes a classification called "Security Detainee," defined as "A civilian interned during a conflict or occupation for his or her own protection" (I-13 line 17, ibid. ). In other words "Enemy Combatants" could be anybody of use to an invading or occupying military operation. The duties and responsibilities of the management network required are set forth with balanced managerial efficiency. Because there are no innate protections to crimes of military authority within the organizational structure, the United States has set up a means to incarcerate innocents, en masse, without trial, without any provocation by the detainee, in the same manner the Third Reich applied detention to its political opposition, Jewish population, resistance, infirm, ethnic minorities, those considered criminals, homosexuals, etc.. The machinery was guilty and is again guilty whether applied or not. I suggest genocide monitoring of the U.S., and that all the statements, plans and actions of U.S. officials concerning Arab peoples be considered within a perspective of the Convention on Genocide and its possible application within the United States. Note that almost all the groups and individuals noted on "Executive Order 13224" at are Islamic (Sources: "The Joint Doctrine for Detainee Operations; Joint Publication 3-63;" both sites mentioned in the document for its electronic release are currently (April 10, 2005) not available: and; the text may remain available at Human Rights Watch ("US: Pentagon Detention Guidelines Entrench Illegality,", which has taken exception to the military's attempt to legitimize "Enemy Combatants" as a category of detainee, while making no particular objection to the United States' creation of machinery to place thousands, hundreds of thousands, in concentration camps. I place a genocide warning herebecause the Bush administration, by creating a machinery for mass detention, and specifically threatening Islamic peoples with incarceration without rights under the Geneva Conventions, has threatened the group - as well as all who defend human rights, with destruction, both psychologically and physically. - jbg

March 26, 2005, Geneva: the U.N. Secretary-General has proposed that the U.N.'s Human Rights Commission be diminished to a more controllable size, according to the needs of powerful nations; this is to be balanced by enlarging the U.N. Security Council ("Annan proposal to recast rights panel welcomed," Zarocostas, March 23, 2005, The Washington Times). The article quotesHuman Rights Watch Director, K.Roth..."the commission has become an Abusers' Defense Society," while Amnesty refers to the idea as a "rare opportunity." In this instance both organizations appear to be representing the interests of U.S. policy.

March 26, 2005, Guatemala: the Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA notes the murder of Juan Lopez, as "the very predictable killing of a poor campesino by Guatemalan 'security' forces" ("The Killing of Juan Lopez: another stressful and sad story in a place called Guatemala," by Grahame Russell (, March 17, 2005). The article links both U.S. and Canadian "development" to the killing. Other recent killings include that of a free trade protestor shot point blank by police on March 15th ("Guatemalan anti-free trade protestor shot dead," March 16, 2005, Daniel, Reuters, Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA), and a murder of the two year old child of human rights activist Gumercinda Argueta, by armed men on January 22, 2005 ("Gumercinda Argueta's Daughter Killed," January 24, 2005, Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA - Lumpkin of the AP ("U.S. Releasing Military Aid to Guatemala," Lumpkin, March 24, 2005, Guardian Unlimited U.K.) notes that the U.S. "is rewarding Guatemala for its progress in overhauling a military once blamed for human rights abuses," with 3.2 million dollars in military aid. The Article mentions that the U.S. was pleased with Guatemala's contributions of "peacekeepers" to Haiti. The Bush administration (with international cooperation) kidnapped and deposed democratically elected Haitian President Aristide. The U.S. funded and supported Guatemala's 36 years civil war which constituted a genocide by the military against the poor who were usually first peoples. See "Updates," Feb. 23, 2004. Genocide warning.

March 26, 2005, the Netherlands: The Netherlands has charged Frans van Anraat with the crime of genocide, for supplying components of chemical weapons manufacture to Saddam Hussein. The prosecutor cited use of poison gas against the population of Halabja, as if it were a fact. ("Dutchman in Iraq genocide charges," March 18, 2005, BBC News World Edition; "Exporter 'knew' chemicals could be used for genocide," March 18, 2005, Expatica News). Application of the Convention is surprising here because responsibility for chemical weapons use in Halabja (1988) has become an ongoing battle of the information war. U.S.-controlled voices insist on Saddam Hussein's guilt, although the government of Iraq's or Saddam Hussein's responsibility for chemical weapons use in Halabja has not been substantiated; the claim that Saddam Hussein used poison gas in Halabja is the only justification for the U.S./U.K. destruction of Iraq which hasn't yet been proven false; evidence that an Iraqi army field commander was responsible for deploying chemical weaponry is available; evidence that the army of Iran was responsible is also available (ie. the "Report of the Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College") (Sources: "What happened in Kurdish Halabja?" Jan.4, 2005, Aljazeera.Net ; "Anniversary of the Halabja Massacre," Richard Boucher, March 16, 2001, U.S. Department of State. Washington, DC; "Claims of Saddam's Genocide Far from Proven," Miller, February 11, 2003, Dissident Voice; Marine Corps Historical Publication FMFRP 3-203 - Lessons Learned: Iran-Iraq War, 10 December 1990 ; "Halabja: How Bush Sr. Continued to Support Saddam After the 1988 Gassing of Thousands And Bush Jr. Used it As a Pretext For War 15 Years Later," Goodman, September 29th, 2003, Democracy Now etc. etc.).

February 18, 2005. Sudan update: the "Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General," of January 25, 2005, finds crimes against humanity have been committed by all parties but does not place itself as judge; specific people are not named; evidence is held in a sealed file ready for the judicial process; the report specifically suggests (573) the inadvisability of using any court mechanism other than the International Criminal Court; the report strengthens universal jurisdiction (612); the report suggests reparations to the victims (591) and setting up a Compensation Board (Source:; source: "The Commission, in my view, eloquently and powerfully argues that referral to the ICC is the best means by which to halt ongoing violations and prevent future ones," - The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Louise Arbour ("SUDAN: Refer Darfur violations to the ICC, senior UN official urges.", 17 Feb 2005). U.S. difficulties in acceding to ICC jurisdiction may affect the recovery of the population. Other Sudan updates, ie. March 24, 2005.

Three entries of this date suggest the intentional weakening of human rights law to allow criminal corporate policies being waged as war, principly by the Bush administrations of the U.S.. Policies ignoring International Law and Geneva Conventions also undermine the Convention on Genocide which now relies increasingly on the strength of peoples rather than rulers.

February 1, 2005. Sudan update: A U.N. Report, not yet made public, as reported in the Los Angeles Times ("darfur killings not genocide, says UN group," Cornwell, independent, online edition, jan. 31, 2005), finds the Government of Sudan not engaged in a policy to exterminate, and the tragedy of Darfur not a "genocide." The U.S. has declared the situation in Sudan a "genocide." The report is said to suggest the matter be turned over to the International Criminal Court. The U.S. does not currently adhere to this court.

January 16, 2005, Madrid Spain: indicted for genocide by Judge Baltasar Garzon, Adolfo Francisco Scilingo's trial begins [Jan. 14th]; the genocide concerns Argentina's persecution of the left from 1976 to 1983 ("Spain Tries Argentine Ex-officer," BBC Jan. 14, 2005 ) (See Bulletin Board).

January 15, 2005, Sudan update: my understanding of the reasons for the tragedy in Darfur hasn't progressed past my essay of September 19th, 2004 ("The Third Force in Rwanda and Sudan,"), and notes (below). U.S. policy makers may have made war in Sudan for corporate self interest. Brian Smith's article "Mounting evidence of US destabilisation of Sudan," 19 Nov. 2004, World Socialist Web Site, substantiates this and presents what U.S. Corporate interests have gained. With respect for the suffering of the displaced population of Darfur, Western human rights organizations carefully ignore the U.S. tactical victory. Meanwhile International media are downplaying World Health Organization programs which seem to progress smoothly whether a portion of the country's people is starving or not: the first program is the innoculation of six million Sudanese children with polio vaccine, by at least 40,000 volunteers ("SUDAN: Polio campaign targets 5.9 million children," IRIN, 11 Jan. 2005), as well as a supplementary innoculations program against meningitis for 150,000 Darfur refugees ("CHAD-SUDAN: Darfur refugees to be vaccinated following meningitis outbreak in camps," IRIN,12 Jan. 2005). These actions coincide with the peace treaty between the Sudanese government and U.S. backed rebels in the South.

November 12, 2004. Honduras. On Nov. 5, 2004, the President of Honduras, Ricardo Maduro, accepted official responsibility for the death squad activities of "the U.S.-trained military during the 1980s", ie. the forced disappearances of leftists ("Honduran president sorry for 1980s death squads," Reuters, Nov. 5, 2004, Alertnet Nov. 6).

November 12, 2004. Bucharest Romania. According to an international commission convened when Romania denied that the Holocaust had occured in its country, found that 380,000 Jews were killed within its borders and 100,000 beyond ("Commission tells Romania to face up to Holocaust," CBC news, Nov. 11, 2004).

November 12, 2004. Iraq. Over a hundred thousand Iraqi civilians so far are reported to have died as a result of this u.s. invasion of the country, and over half of these as a result of u.s. airstrikes. ("100,000 Iraqi civilians dead, says study," Boseley, The Guardian, U.K., October 29, 2004). Continuing genocide warning.

November 12, 2004, Seoul, South Korea: declassified documents show that the U.S. seriously considered using nuclear weapons against North Korea as recently as 1998 ("Documents: U.S. had plan to Nuke N. Korea," (UPI) The Washington Times online, Nov. 7, 2004). Nuclear weapons destroy military targets as well as civilian populations without distinction. Genocide warning.

October 1, 2004. Natuashish Newfoundland. The Innu community is suffering from the fourth suicide in three months ("Suicide among Innu called 'an epidemic',Edmonton Sun / Canoe News, Oct. 1, 2004).

Update, 19 July, 2004. Genocide warning for Western Sudan, Darfur. Ongoing. See "Notes on Sudan, July 19, 2004".

Sudan update, Sept. 22, 2004. A majority of the Security Council has suggested an "international commission of inquiry in order immediately to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law in Darfur by all parties, to determine also whether or not acts of genocide have occurred, and to identify the perpetrators of such violations with a view to ensuring that those responsible are held accountable...." ("Text of U.N. Security Council Resolution on Sudan," UN, Sept. 19, 2004); more notes on Sudan: "The Third Force in Sudan and Rwanda."

June 16 2004. Genocide warnings, Sudan, Ethiopia. U.N. attention is currently focused on Darfur in Western Sudan, where a hundred and fifty thousand people have sought refuge in neighbouring Chad, and terrorization by raiders identified as government militias, has displaced over a million people.("Sudan: Government Forces , militias have committed atrocities -U.N. rapporteur,:" June 14, 2004, U.N. News Press Release). The U.S. has previously declared in Congress, the Islamic Government of Sudan guilty of genocide -"The Sudan Peace Act," H.R.5531 of 2002, which also specifically encourages the U.S. to provide aid entirely outside of the United Nations. Local de-stabilization in Darfur may be a link in the tactical encirclement of an Islamic government, by U.S. and Colonial interests. Because the magnitude of crimes against humanity are previously unknown to these regions, and because these crimes are often without explanation, or apparent economic motivation, and because the U.S. has established grounds for unilateral intervention, a tragedy might be interpreted as precipitated to encourage U.S. intervention in order to control headwaters of the Nile. (Summary. For more information, see J.B.Gerald, "Notes on Sudan," June 16, 2004 (available with update, July 19, 2004).

June 14, 2004. Genocide warning. Damage to Iraqi, Yugoslav, and Afghani civilian populations (and Western soldiers), from depleted uranium weaponry has escalated; the latest "Uranium Medical Research Centre field team report" from Afghanistan ( provides evidence of non-depleted uranium (NDU) contamination throughout ravaged areas of Afrghanistan; non-depleted uranium is substantially more lethal and less expensive than depleted uranium (Also, "The Urinary Concentration and Ratio of Uranium Isotopes in Civilians of the Bibi Mahro Region after Recent Military Operations in Eastern Afghanistan," by Durakovic, Gerdes, Parrish, Zimmerman, Gresham, Uranium Medical Research Centre."Poster," May 23, 2004 - The effects on children, the severity of birth defects, the increasing widespread radioactive contamination, suggest the intentional destruction of local peoples; see two reports by Dr. Mohammed Daud Miraki on the effects of uranium on the Afghani people, "The Silent Genocide from America," and previously, "The Perpetual Death from America." These also indicate use / testing of unidentified unconventional weapons.Feb. 23, 2004. Genocide warning: there are ongoing difficulties in Guatemala, for example, arising from the U.S. right wing (United Fruit) takeover by a CIA / military coup in 1954. The country continues to provide a battleground for the application of the Convention on Genocide. The Commission for Historical Clarification established by the Oslo Accords of 1994 with U.N. support, found that a genocide occurred in the massacres of indigenous peoples in Guatemala from 1981 to 1983. This was during the regimes of (1978-82) Fernando Romeo Lucas Garcia, who escaped to Venezuela, and (1982-83) Efraín Ríos Montt, who recently ran for President. Quotes from the Report's "Conclusions," indicate a familiar pattern: "83. Using the National Security Doctrine as its justification, and acting in the name of anti-communism, crimes were committed which include the kidnapping and assassination of political activists, students, trade unionists and human rights advocates, all categorised as “subversives”; the forced disappearance of political and social leaders and poor peasants; and the systematic use of torture." ".....86. These massacres and the so-called scorched earth operations, as planned by the State, resulted in the complete extermination of many Mayan communities, along with their homes, cattle, crops and other elements essential to survival. The CEH registered 626 massacres attributable to these forces." ( - from "Conclusions," Guatemala Memory of Silence: Report of the Commission for Historical Clarification, ). All this occurred within a context of right wing military oppression of the people and civil war from 1960 to 1996. Crimes against human rights workers, priests, the first peoples, the poor, continue (Other sources: Human Rights Watch claims to have studied the instance of Guatemala for twenty years...; "Guatemala Human Rights Commission / USA," Vol. 16 Nos 1-3 / Feb. 1, 2004, Center for Human Rights Legal Action, Guatemala; 2, 2003. Genocide warning
Child mortality rates in Iraq may suggest that the cumulative effects of U.S. generated military actions and "Sanctions," risk the destruction of a national group. (See Prof. Marc Bossuyt, UN/ECOSOC, June 21,2000 (GE.00-14092), and Hans C. von Sponek, "IRAQ Four Questions, Four Answers," September 25, 2002, European Colloquium Belgium, and Prof. Francis A Boyle's petition to the United Nations, "On Behalf of Iraq's 4.5 Million Children, a Petition for Relief from Genocide," CounterPunch, November 23, 2002). Or see my "An Essay against Genocide," peacemedia news (Netherlands), 1995. Population figures for Iraq vary widely according to their source. In 1989, before the Gulf war and "Sanctions," about 539 Iraqi children under the age of five died each month. In 1998, about 6452 children under the age of five died each month; the rate was / is steadily rising. ( UNESCO).
On July 1, 2003, the U.S. denies military aid to nations supporting the International Criminal Court, unless they have the U.S. president's waiver or have agreed not to prosecute U.S. citizens ("impunity"). 49 countries are said to have signed "bilateral immunity agreements" by this date. Some of the signatures are not subsequently approved by national parliaments. The United Nations Security Council's Resolution 1422 may give participants in U.N. operations who haven't subscribed to the Court, some immunity from formal investigation or prosecution. This was renewed on July 12, 2003, and can be denied by vote each year.

January 23, 2004. Current genocide warnings:
in general, the first peoples of all nations and the poor, remain in danger, particularly in the eastern Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, where oil and mineral interests place the survival of African peoples at risk; the people of Palestine remain at risk; in Canada, high suicide rates among native peoples of the north and contamination of the northern habitat continue to risk first peoples; among many other tribes of the Americas, the Secwepemc Nation of British Columbia claims that a corporate attempt to force it from its homeland is a genocide; U.S. first people in Arizona (Hopi and Navaho) remain at risk; peoples are at risk in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, where the occupiers' interests continue to destroy national groups, and where the ecocide from depleted uranium usage in war has only begun. Since genocide is possibly used currently as a tactic in setting one portion of indigenous resistance against another, entire groups of people are endangered throughout these areas. Since the government of the United States has claimed the right to detain in anonymity anyone it chooses, internationally, while arresting large groups within categories of ethnic profiling, domestically, the United States should be monitored for genocide.

July 1, 2002. The International Criminal Court opens.

May 6, 2002. Under President George W. Bush, the United States renounces the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, claiming no legal obligations to the treaty.

December 31, 2000. President Clinton signs the Rome Statute of the International Crimminal Court for the United States.

September 7, 2000. Mexico signs the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

July 7, 2000. Canada ratifies the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court..

December 18, 1998. Canada signs the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court..

July 17, 1998, Rome. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is adopted by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court.


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Ed. & commentary: J.B.Gerald; images: J.Maas
Gerald and Maas Night's Lantern
Updated Dec. 30, 2006
Links updated february 2013
Format update 1 january 2018